9th Biennial InternationalInterdisciplinary conference, 29th June-1st July, 2016
Keele University, UK
Call for Abstracts
Gender and ProductiveAgeing – New forms of Work Organization
Catherine Earl,Federation Business School, Federation University, Australia
Philip Taylor, FederationBusiness School, Federation University, AUSTRALIA
Wendy Loretto,Business School, University of Edinburgh, SCOTLAND
SarahVickerstaff, Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, University of Kent,ENGLAND
Thisstream focuses on new forms of work organization and the potentiality of womenand men aged over 50 as active labour force participants. There is a particularand ongoing interest among public policymakers in promoting ‘productiveageing’, ‘active ageing’, and ‘successful ageing’ as a means of encouraginglater life productivity and exploiting solutions to labour supply issues(Walker, 2015). While this focus on productivity is not new, the forms it takesmay be evolving, especially towards a neoliberalized approach to retirement asa new form of work organization which places the onus for participation onindividuals (Lewis and Walker, 2011), and this may differ for older women andolder men. The increasing interest in the employment of older workers isfurther fuelled by concerns about the future funding of social welfare andhealth systems and concerns that the pool of younger people entering the labourmarket may 'run dry’. In this context, our stream responds to postfeminist questionsabout late- and post-career entrepreneurship in term of ‘doing gender’ in the thirdage; choice and agency in/of working in late- and post-careers; changingvaluations of interacting forms of capital associated with successful third-ageworking; and increasing individualization of retirement careers (Adkins andSkeggs, 2004; Bauman, 2001; Grosz, 2011; Lewis, 2014; Nentwich and Kelan, 2014).
Whilethere is increasing interest in ‘encore entrepreneurship’, there is littleclarity about ‘who can be and what might be’ an entrepreneur (Ahl and Marlowe, 2012),a non-entrepreneur (Ramoglou, 2011), and a ‘real’ entrepreneur (Bourne andCalás, 2013) in the third age. Encore entrepreneurship may include consultancyand temporary professional work (such as locum doctors), franchisees, directsales (such as Tupperware), traditionally structured small business,independent online business, online business via an existing structure (such asebay), food/craft/farmer’s market and expo stalls, etc. Additionally, family-basedenterprise initiatives (such as renting a room or babysitting) may be regardedas entrepreneurship. Described in popular lexicon as ‘gold’ collar or ‘grey’collar work, such terms fail to capture a gendered dimension to late-career andpost-career entrepreneurship where older women and older men engage inqualitatively different forms of entrepreneurial activity, such as nanna-preneursoperating home-located and family-based micro-businesses (Luckman, 2015). These differences may be explored as: encore entrepreneurship – motivated by income generation(profit); socialenterprise – motivated by desires to 'do good’ and generate income (non-profitor profit); volunteering - motivated by doing good & contributing to thecommunity without generating income .
Conceptualizationsof late-career and post-work entrepreneurship are confounded by stereotypes surroundingolder women’s and older men’s skills and attributes. The masculinization ofentrepreneurial activities (Bruni, et al., 2013; Lewis, 2006) may, in part, account for women’s lowparticipation in self-employment (Kerfoot and Miller, 2010) and for genderedvariations in business growth and management across the life course (Davis andShaver, 2012). Concepts underpinning third-age entrepreneurial activity, suchas capital, craft, skill, wisdom, expertise and on-the-job (or in-the-home) know-howcan be seen as gendered, and illuminate the qualitatively different value placedon different forms of capital (Bourdieu, 1986). Social capital, skills,knowledge and expertise based on experience may be overlooked in favour ofinstitutionalized cultural capital in the form of academic credentials andformal training, for example. We call forresearch on older workers not as a vulnerable labour market group but as activeand agentic labour market participants, and the interconnections between ‘doinggender’ in the third age and encore entrepreneurship. Moreover, since manyorganizations hire older workers in precarious employment (Lain, 2012), weinvite papers that question the role of the organization in the development andexpansion of encore entrepreneurships. Papers can be theoretical or discussionsof theoretically informed empirical work from a wide range of empirical spheresthat address, but are not limited to, the following questions:
· How might encore entrepreneurshipcountenance growing casualization and precariousness in employment for older womenand/or older men?
· To what extent is encore entrepreneurshipan alternative to casualized jobs or late-career unemployment? In what ways isencore entrepreneurship a means to supplementing inadequate retirement incomes,particularly for women?
· What relationships do capital, skill,craft, expertise and wisdom have in encore entrepreneurship? How influential isgender in these relationships?
· What roles do organizations playin late-career and post-career entrepreneurship?
· How might encore entrepreneurshipchallenge competing explanations of ageing in terms of productivity?
Abstractsof approximately 500 words (ONE page, Word document NOT PDF, single spaced,excluding references, no header, footers or track changes) are invited by 1stNovember 2015 with decisions on acceptance to be made by stream leaders withinone month. All abstracts will be peer reviewed. New and young scholars with'work in progress' papers are welcomed. Papers can be theoretical ortheoretically informed empirical work. In the case of co-authored papers, ONEperson should be identified as the corresponding author. Due to restrictions ofspace on the conference schedule, multiple submissions by the same author willnot be timetabled. Abstracts should be emailed to: Catherine.Earl@federation.edu.au Abstracts should include FULL contactdetails, including your name, department, institutional affiliation, mailingaddress, and e-mail address. State thetitle of the stream to which you are submitting your abstract. *Note that nofunding, fee waiver, travel or other bursaries are offered for attendance atGWO2016*.
Adkins,L. and Skeggs, B. 2004. Feminism After Bourdieu. Malden: BlackwellPublishing.
Ahl,H. 2006 ‘Why research on women entrepreneurs needs new directions’, Entrepreneurship,Theory and Practice, 30: 5, 595–621.
Ahl,H. and Marlowe, S. 2012 ‘Exploring the dynamics of gender, feminism andentrepreneurship: Advancing debates to escape a dead end’, Organization,19: 5, 543–562.
Bauman,Z. 2001 The Individualised Society. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Bourdieu,P. 1986 ‘The forms of capital’, in J. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of Theoryand Research for the Sociology of Education (pp. 241-258). New York:Greenwood.
Bourne,K. A. and Calás, M. B. 2013 ‘Becoming “real” entrepreneurs: Women and thegendered normalization of “work”’, Gender, Work and Organization, 20: 4,425–438.
Bruni,A., Gherardi, G. and Poggio, B. 2004 ‘Doing gender, doing entrepreneurship: Anethnographic account of intertwined practices’, Gender, Work andOrganization, 11: 4, 406–429.
Davis,A. E. and Shaver, K. G. 2012 ‘Understanding gendered variations in businessgrowth intentions across the life course’, Entrepreneurship Theory andPractice, 36: 3, 495–512.
Grosz,E. 2011 Becoming Undone: Darwinian Reflections on Life, Politics and Art.Durham: Duke University Press.
Kerfoot,D. and Miller, C. 2010 ‘Organizing entrepreneurship? Women’s invisibility inself-employment’, in P. Lewis and R. Simpson (Eds.), Revealing and ConcealingGender: Issues of Visibility in Organizations (pp. 100–123). Basingstoke,UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Lain,D. 2012 ‘Working past 65 in the UK and the USA: segregation into ‘Lopaq’occupations?’, Work, Employment and Society, 26: 1, 78–94.
Lewis,K. and Walker, E. A. 2011 ‘Self-employment: Policy panacea for an ageing population?’,Small Enterprise Research, 18: 2, 143–151.
Lewis,P. 2006 ‘The quest for invisibility: Female entrepreneurs and the masculinenorm of entrepreneurship’, Gender, Work and Organization, 13: 5,453–469.
Lewis,P. 2014 ‘Postfeminism, femininities and organization studies: Exploring a new agenda’,Organization Studies, 35: 12, 1845-66.
Loretto,W. and Vickerstaff, S. 2013 ‘The domestic and gendered context for retirement’,Human Relations, 66: 1, 65–86.
Luckman,S. 2015 ‘Women's micro-entrepreneurial homeworking’, Australian FeministStudies, 30: 84, 146-160.
Mallett,O. and Wapshott, R. 2015 ‘Making sense of self-employment in late career: Understandingthe identity work of olderpreneurs’, Work, Employment and Society, 29:2, 250-266.
Nentwich,J. C. and Kelan, E. K. 2014 ‘Towards a topology of “doing gender”: An analysisof empirical research and its challenges’, Gender, Work and Organization,21: 2, 121–134.
Platman,K. 2004 ‘”Portfolio careers” and the search for flexibility in later life’, Work,Employment and Society, 18: 3, 573-599.
Ramoglou,S. 2011 ‘Who is a “non-entrepreneur”?: Taking the “others” of entrepreneurshipseriously’, International Small Business Journal, 31: 4, 432–453.
Sennett,R. 2008 The Craftsman. London: Penguin.
Taylor,P. 2013 Older Workers in an Ageing Society: Critical Topics in Research andPolicy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Walker,A. 2009 ‘Commentary: The Emergence and Application of Active Aging in Europe’, Journalof Aging and Social Policy, 21: 1, 75-93.